Environment

The African Rural Development Study (ARDS) was conducted to investigate the reasons for the limited impact of past rural development programs on low-income populations in Africa and to generate a theoretical framework and operational guidelines for the design of future rural development programs. Specific topicsanalyzed include labor flow, migration, mechanization in smallholder agriculture, regional equity, livestock development, incentives, the role of women, and Africanization of management. Rural development programs must be viewed as part of a continiuous, dynamic process. Analysis revealed that the lack of long-term improvement of living standards among low-income subsistance farmers could be attributed to limited objectives; lack of knowledge about the impacts of policy on performance, the suitability of technological applications, and the effects of sociopolitical influence; and the scarcity of trained local manpower.A planned, sequential approach is recommended as the means of maximizing scarce resources and serving the greatest number of farmers in the lowest income sector of the agricultural economy. A glossary, project reviews, a bibliography, and maps and tables are provided.

 

 

 

Citation

Lele, Uma. 1975. The design of rural development : lessons from Africa. Baltimore, MD : The Johns Hopkins University Press. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1975/01/439996/design-rural-development-lessons-africa

The interaction between population growth, the environment, and agricultural intensification raises the most compelling and most controversial issues currently facing developing countries. Given the low initial population densities, the benefits of increasing population on agricultural development have been widely documented by Boserup in 1961 and Ruthenberg in 1982. These authors argued that slowly increasing population densities have desirable effects on technical change, land and labor productivity, and rural per capita incomes through changes in relative factor prices. Others have pointed out that while high population densities may be desirable in stimulating rural markets and technological adaptation, rapid population growth is very costly to countries at early stages of development. This report shows that the environmental damage from the reduction of bush fallow, the more intensive use of land without supplementary biological and chemical inputs, and the depletion of forestry resources complicates the transition from low to more densely populated areas as originally envisaged in the Boserup hypothesis. The paper also demonstrates that the most pragmatic means of achieving rapid growth in agriculture production, employment and incomes in rapid population growth and declining extensive margin is to focus resources and policy attention on areas responsive to chemical fertilizers and improved seed.

 

 

 

Citation

Lele, Uma; Stone, Steven W.. 1989. Population pressure, the environment and agricultural intensification : variations on the Boserup hypothesis. Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 4. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1989/11/440521/population-pressure-environment-agricultural-intensification-variations-boserup-hypothesis

 

 

A review of World Bank assistance to Indonesia in the forest sector since 1991 faces two challenges. The first is maintaining a distinction between an assessment based on quick solutions to outstanding problems and one based on long-term underlying objectives and historical facts, and how they shaped government and Bank actions toward Indonesia ' s forests until 1997. The second challenge is to assess the performance of the Bank ' s 1991 Forest Strategy in a situation where, despite largely adopting the principles that its strategy espouses, the Bank has been unable to influence the rate of destruction of natural forests. Following a brief discussion of the background and context to the current forest sector situation in Indonesia, this review is divided into two parts. The first part presents the state of the forests and the forest sector and identifies the pressures on forests and the key issues. The second part assesses the Bank ' s involvement in the sector and concludes with the main findings of the review.

 

 

Citation

Gautam, Madhur; Lele, Uma; Kartodihardjo, Hariadi; Khan, Azis; Erwinsyah, Ir.; Rana, Saeed. 2000. Indonesia - The challenges of World Bank involvement in forests. OED Evaluation country case study series ; forestry. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2000/01/20153877/indonesia-challenges-world-bank-involvement-forests

 

The World Bank has clearly diminished its lending presence in the Amazon in the past decade. It has moved from the " big projects " era of the 1960s through the 1980s and strong economic and sector work to a more careful approach at the end of the century with attempts once again to focus on strategic issues and smaller projects, including pilot activities. This seems due both to the poor performance of earlier projects-which prompted a more risk-adverse Bank strategy following the intense international scrutiny and criticism contributing to the cautious approach urged by the 1991 Forest Strategy-and to a lack of demand in Brazil for Bank funds. Brazil ' s macroeconomic difficulties-its balance of payments and fiscal deficits-have led the government to be selective as well as to shift lending to quick-disbursing activities. This is evident in the most recent land reform programs. Controlling deforestation is not easy given the large number and level of national and global forces and actors affecting it. If the Bank is to be a facilitator for balancing the needs of stakeholders (i.e., the poor and the indigenous people) and national and global interests, it must be seen as an objective bystander. The 1991 Forest Strategy emphasizes the primacy of the rights of the indigenous people-and by implication their rights have primacy over those of the local poor. But the Bank cannot be a facilitator unless it is viewed by both parties as not serving the interests of only one party.

 

 

 

Citation

Lele, Uma; Viana, Virgilio; Verissimo, Adalberto; Vosti, Stephen; Perkins, Karin; Husain, Syed Arif. 2010. Brazil - Forests in the balance : challenges of conservation with development. OED Evaluation country case study series ; forestry. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2010/01/20153705/brazil-forests-balance-challenges-conservation-development