Food and Agriculture

This report consists of three articles originally published in journals. Together the articles serve to illuminate the main issues identified and addressed by the MADIA project, to illustrate the benefits of cross country analysis, and to show the importance of the agricultural sector for broad based growth in Africa. The first article " Lessons of experience for Governments and aid donors " , reveals mounting evidence that adjustment based on macroeconomic reforms cannot alone put African agriculture back on a growth path. The second article, " Sources of growth in East African agriculture " , examines the common and contrasting experiences of Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania in their post independence period. African policymakers have faced a complex task in spurring agricultural growth. The need for better understanding of the interplay between macroeconomic and sectoral policies to improve the prospects for long term sustainable growth is underscored. The last article, " The development of national agricultural research capacity : India ' s experience with the Rockefeller Foundation and its signifigance for Africa " , highlights the fact that technological change is one of the critical elements that determines the pace of agricultural growth in developing countries.




Lele, Uma. 1989. Managing agricultural development in Africa : three articles on lessons from experience. Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 2. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.



This paper attempts to explore the causes of productivity differences by farm size by focusing on Kenya and Malawi, which have had a superior record in maintaining agricultural data. The data show that yields per hectare are higher on large farms, which not only make more intensive use of modern inputs but also of labor. In part, this is because large farmers are better able to undertake risk. Small farmers, who have been slower to adopt modern technology, have had inadequate access to modern inputs. Nevertheless, the domestic resource costs (DRCs) of small farm production are similar to those of large farms, so that no loss in productive efficiency results from adopting a smallholder development strategy. The following policies are suggested to foster more rapid growth in smallholder productivity. First, a greater knowledge of how small farmers mobilize labor through market as well as nonmarket forces is essential. Second, smallholder programs may also require governments to provide information, inputs and credit until private markets for these services are able to develop. Finally, a land policy is needed to increase the access of households to land, and a production policy is needed to ensure that all households, regardless of farm size, have a right to grow all crops, since there are usually no scale economies in production.




Lele, Uma; Agarwal, Manmohan. 1989. Smallholder and large scale agriculture in Africa : are there tradeoffs between growth and equity?. Managing agricultural development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 6. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.



The structural adjustment efforts under way since the early 1980s have emphasized the liberalization of agricultural prices and markets and have led to a vigorous debate about the appropriate roles of the private and public sectors. This paper examines the causes of state intervention prior to independence as well as post-independence experience with marketing parastatals and cooperatives in Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania. This analysis is followed by an overview of the content and outcomes of the marketing and pricing liberalization programs. The focus is on the pricing and marketing of traditional export and food crops, which in these countries constitute well over 90 percent of the area harvested, value added and employment created in agriculture. The paper is not concerned with dairy, livestock or horticultural crops - areas in which government intervention has been less obtrusive and in which the private sector has played an important role.




Lele, Uma; Christiansen, Robert E.. 1989. Markets, marketing boards, and cooperatives in Africa : issues in adjustment policy. Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 11. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.




The removal of fertilizer subsidies, and privatization of importation and distribution networks have been prominent features of recent policy reforms in MADIA countries to reduce budget deficits and the role of the public sector. This paper reviews the reform policies implemented during the 1980s in the MADIA countries and their impact on the development of fertilizer use. In particular, it explores the supply and demand constraints that hinder the process of rapid growth and diffusion of fertilizer use. This study recommends that : 1) donors should undertake long term, untied import support for fertilizers to promote sound intensification of fertilizer use on a sustained basis, 2) food and fertilizer stocks be financed at the national and regional levels to encourage governments to remove intra and inter country restrictions on trade, 3) improving the knowledge base on a location specific basis, especially the relative role of fertilizers vis a vis other more complex resource management needs, and 4) privatization offers great potential for improving fertilizer procurement and distribution.




Lele, Uma; Christiansen, Robert E.; Kadiresan, Kundhavi. 1989. Fertilizer policy in Africa : lessons from development programs and adjustment lending, 1970-87. Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 5. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.




One of the critical problems of Nigeria ' s agricultural sector is the inadequate or nonexistent supporting physical infrastructure such as rural roads, storage and marketing facilities, and water supply. This paper comprises a discussion of the extent of the rural roads network and the consequences of its growth on Nigerian agriculture during the 1970 to 1988 period. Following, a review of the experience of construction and maintenance of rural roads in Bank projects is presented. Further, an assessment is made of future needs for rehabiliation and maintenance of the network, with calculation regarding the resources necessary to develop such a network. Finally, institutional aspects, sustainability and reform are considered. The paper concludes by stressing the urgent need to search for effective mechanisms including reform, technical assistance and coordination of federal directorates, state entities and local government institutions to build institutional capacity at all levels but particularly in Local Government Authorities (LGA).