Food and Agriculture

By drawing on the diaries of scientists in the Rockefeller Foundation who assisted India in developing its research system in the 1950s and 60s, this paper outlines the process by which research reorganization was achieved and the external factors which induced the reorganization. The paper also discusses this reorganization in relation to the growth in productivity of the Indian system and the role that the Foundation played in that process. It stresses that external factors may frequently be critical in developing coalitions of elite needed for policy reform. It nevertheless contrasts the experience of the Rockefeller Foundation in India with that of the donors currently attempting to build the same systems in Africa. It stresses the preconditions needed to achieve a successful donor recipient collaboration in both donor and recipient countries including the need for a long term perspective, political support at the highest levels of the government, the quality and the length of service of the donor and recipient scientists and a wholistic approach to organizational improvement which simultaneously addresses the problems of human capital, institutions, incentives and administrative procedures.



Source: Lele, Uma; Goldsmith, Arthur A.. 1986. Building agricultural research capacity : India's experience with the Rockefeller foundation and its significance for Africa. Development Research Department discussion paper ; no. DRD 213. Washington DC ; World Bank.

A dynamic agricultural sector is critical for alleviating Sub-Saharan Africa's current economic crisis, and for laying the foundations of sustained future growth. In recent years, however, agriculture has performed poorly in many African countries. Efforts to assist its recovery, often through structural adjustment lending, have suffered from inadequate information about country- and region-specific factors, and from an emphasis on macroeconomic policies without complementary interventions at the sector level. The article describes the patterns of agriculturalg rowth in Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania, and examines price and nonprice aspects of three sets of factors: initial endowments and subsequent exogenous developments, general economic influences, and sectoral issues and policies. It suggests that government action at the sectoral and subsectoral levels in such critical areas as land policy, smallholders' access to inputs, and agricultural research needs to be combined with macroeconomic reforms to achieve sustained and broadbased agricultural growth.




Lele, Uma. 1989. "Sources of growth in east African agriculture". The World Bank economic review. -- Vol. 3, no. 1 (January 1989), pp. 119-144.



A comparative overview will be presented of domestic policies (macroeconomic and agricultural) in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania and their influence on the extent and character of agricultural growth. The contribution of the World Bank to agricultural growth in the three countries will then be reviewed, from the perspectives of both policy advice and lending provided by the Bank. The presentation will be based upon the findings of case studies of the Bank ' s involvement in the three East African countries, carried out under DRD ' s Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) Research Project.





Lele, Uma; Meyers, L. Richard. 1987. Growth and structural change in East Africa : domestic policies, agricultural performance and World Bank assistance, 1963-1986. Development Research Department discussion paper ; no. DRD 274. Washington DC : World Bank.



This report examines the complex problems faced by an economically well managed but small, poor and landlocked country in trying to achieve equitable growth while coping with great external shocks. Malawi ' s problems of adjustment have been made difficult by dualism within dualism - a structure whereby the country ' s agriculture sector is sharply divided by legal restrictions into estates and smallholders, and smallholders are de facto divided on the basis of holding size into a small minority producing a marketable surplus and capable of taking risks and, a preponderant majority experiencing stagnation or near economic paralysis. The report also analyzes the effect on the smallholder sector of structural adjustment measures most immediately relevant to agricultural and rural development : producer pricing adjustments, fertilizer policies, grain marketing liberalization, and withdrawal of donor support from the National Rural Development Program. It then discusses policies addressing the country ' s dualism, licensing, pricing, land and taxation - which the government would need to adopt in support of equitable growth.




Lele, Uma. 1989. Structural adjustment, agricultural development and the poor : lessons from the Malawian experience. Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 9. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.



The development of African economies depends to a great extent on the performance of their agricultural sector, within which export crops play an important role. However, Africa ' s share of world trade in traditional export crops has declined steadily during the past two decades. This paper focuses on cotton, a key export crop. The world demand for cotton grew at 1.2 percent per annum from 1961 to 1986, less rapidly than cocoa and tea; but Africa ' s demand for cotton grew faster than for most other commodities that it exports. By and large, cotton production in the francophone countries has been superior to that of anglophone countries, even though many of the latter had excelled earlier. This paper attempts to pinpoint the causes of the relative success and failure of different commodity development schemes. It also explains variations in the performance of national cotton subsectors by focusing on the key interactions between price and nonprice factors.




Lele, Uma; Van de Walle, Nicolas; Gbetibouo, Mathurin. 1989. Cotton in Africa : an analysis of differences in performance. Managing agricultural development in Africa (MADIA) discussion paper ; no. 7. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.